#internet of things? #connectivity #data #dissemination: #RoadDensity

For past few days I am struggling to find out what is the total length of roads in India?

what is revenue area of India?

What is projected population of India in 2017?

Are they easy questions? Particularly when a secretary (an IAS) asks for references, authentic documents?

I tried. But could not get authentic documents.

I wrote to few departments. PWD, Rural Development, Urban local body.

In reply I got the data of their jurisdiction only and all of them said I don’t know about India.

I saw these departments were sending reports to Their Ministries concerned. One engineer from PWD department came to me and said I cannot give data of India. I said since you regularly send data/reports to Ministry of Road thus at least you can ask anyone there on telephone or via email etc. and help me. They denied. But later on print I got from them duly signed. That was print of Wikipedia page on roads in India.

But then I had this demand of IAS back in my mind about authentic document. Thus I thought whether I can presume this wiki document as authentic?

On the page of National Highways Authority of India site, it is mentioned that total length of roads in 33 lakhs km.

While searching through internet I got another link of Statistical Year book of India 2017 brought out by Ministry of Statistics. It has table on different categories of roads.

Table 21.1 I think lists the total and surfaced roads. It has data on highways, pwd roads, urban roads, other rural roads and project roads. But that totals to as total roads-4572144 km and 3157806 km.

But on the page of NHAI it had 33 lakhs km.

Confusion started arising as to which data should I take?

Then there was another set of information on https://community.data.gov.in/total-road-length-in-india-from-2001-to-2015/

This page says that as on March 2015 5472144.255 Kms is the total road length in India.

Thus does it can be concluded as to what Wikipedia page lists is correct? As on March 2016 total road length in India is 5603293 Kms. But another point as to how to know state wise breakup of this 5603293 kms??

Due to Pressure amounting on my head I thought to call help from outside of my state? No one was able to help me.

I searched the NHAI site. There I found a word planning Stat & coord. Immediately I called up 011-25093551. Someone talked to me, as I told my story and query? She connected me to someone. I got the reply that I am giving you a number. You contact him. As he is dealing with data. I called on his mobile. XXXXXXX824. The voice on other side said wrong number.

I called up again to earlier number on which that person gave me this new number. The lady PA talked and I confirmed the number of Mr M. She said it is correct number. She gave me another number to dial. 25074110 and said you dial extension numbers to talk to Mr M. I got the line but voice on other side he is not here, and I don’t know when he will come.

Whole of these three days internet connection dead. I could not open a single page. I called the Karnataka Directorate of Economics. They gave me one number of some Smt S. I dialed two times on her mobile. But no one picked up. I called again they gave me land line also. But I sent SMS to that mobile number writing that I am calling to get help on road length of India as data on roads is printed in the statistical book published by Karnataka DES.

Then next I called UP DES Lucknow. There they gave me number of Deputy Director Mr Yadav. I called on his mobile several times but no response. Then I called again to DES line, they gave me land line number. There also for almost whole day I rang but no one picked up. Then I asked DES number 0522-2238969. This was I think fourth call to this number. They gave me pne number of Mr Pandey. I called on that also. Then once again I called the DES number. They told me they may be in meeting you call later. But till 5 in evening I was not able to talk to anyone in UP.

I had another hope in Himachal Pradesh.

Since I had to calculate road density for that I needed projected population also.

In Himachal Pradesh statistical Publication I saw a very good table on population projection. India’s projected population for 2017 was given as 1345276000 in table no 26.13.

I telephoned 0177-2626302, the voice on other side very courteously informed me that I will give you a number you call on that since he is dealing on that subject. While further talking he said you give me your number I will tell any officer to call you. I said thankyou. Later in evening a call came from Himachal Pradesh. He said the population projection were worked out by DES people only based on census 2011 population. I was amazed. Since I wanted to know if any link is available with them of RGI or census they said no.

I had asked local census office twice about such data. Projected population statewise. They said they don’t have projected population of India. RGI has not released so I cannot tell. But whatever you want you write a letter then we will ask from central office. I was shocked initially. Thinking that local census office do not have projected population of India. But that is reality I had to face.

I called Delhi DES. The voice on other side said the officer is not in seat then I said please call any other officer. He said hold on I am calling someone. Second voice said officer is not his seat. I said that I know but I want to know this data? He said he get from transport department. Later on my requesting he said you click to that link on site and you will get whatever you wanted. Then I thought what to say further.

Whole of three days I could not search internet, problem was the speed.

But when I could not get help from NHAI office who else will be able to help me?

I am afraid what I will face next, if I am asked to give authentic document about road density?

so there are issues, of connectivity, Data dissemination, transparency, ease of doing business? feeling connected?

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Penetration of #Internet into #minds of #youngones- #Teens?

download (8)Penetration of Internet is a topic which everyone likes to debate. Now days parents remain tensed over internet access in their homes. Earlier, 30 years back topic of discussion used to be the time spent of watching Television. Every household and all over the print media it was discussed as to how much time children need to spend on watching TV, since so called social media as we know today was not existing.download (12)

On doordarshan few psychologists were called and they told how much time children should spent on TV. Topic of debate remains same when computer revolution happened. Be in office or in home, people had TV, Computer also for entertainment, Then after few years a boom of television happened, flood of TV channels started coming, with ZEE and metro channel on DD and few more. Also thanx to the Ekta Kapoor with BALA ji telefilms pvt ltd, they have started an industry now called as Television industry. Earlier we only knew as film industry. Television was untouchables for film actors. It was undoubtedly first STARTUP in television industry? She singlehandedly churned out so many television soaps? Why they call it soap serials? I don’t know? But with her (read their) creativity we now have huge numbers of female actors, Tulsi, Baa, Sakhsi- Kahani ghar ghar ki, Yeh mohabatein,  but it was ITIHAAS serial which I saw on Doordarshan. It was having a superb TV actor Joan david??

With the revolution in Cable TV it was possible to provide live coverage to maximum number of households, Even it became a issue of politics, In few states parties woes that if brought into power they will distribute televisions sets free of cost. Earlier we used to watch few Disney cartoons on Doordarshan. Since that was the only channel. Now with advent of cable TV there are umbrella of cartoon channels. More than 20 channels. They show all types of cartoon films. Few are of south East Asia. They several characters. Hagimaroo???? Etc etc. Earlier we knew only Donald duck. Tom and Jerry. Pluto. And that fox or wolf. Then there was Mogli of jungle book.  Now my son watches doremon sinchan ben10 popei sailor to name few. But they have different cultural background and with that they different morality ethics etc that does not matches with our Indian culture. Such contents pose danger.

Now in age of IT this social media and in particular the Internet is playing secretly with the minds of our young ones.

As per a survey of NSSO [NSS KI(71/25.2)] which I had read sometime back tells that highest number of households (with atleast one member of age 14 years and above) having access to the internet facility were found in Lakshadweep with 71.9% households. It was closely followed by Pudducherry with 61.6% households at second highest. Third highest was in A & N Islands with 59.3% households (593 per 1000).

In Kerala survey estimated that about 56.2% households had internet penetration. Here most important is the fact that household member age counted was of age 14 and above. But if internet facility is available in household then can we not imagine the access to the children less than 14 years of age?

Goa had 51.0% households with penetration of internet and accessible to 14 years of age.

In URBAN areas separately it was found in survey that Lakshadweep was on top with highest number (75.9%) of households having access to internet. Second highest was urban households of A & N Islands with 71.1% households having access to internet. Maharashtra was with third highest number of households (64.6%) in country with access to internet facility. Followed by Pudducherry at 63.7%, Kerala at 62.1%, Nagaland with 61.2%, Sikkim with 60.8% and Chandigarh with 60.2% households having access to internet in that order.

About 15 states/UTs were having more that 50% households with internet facility (these households were having at least one member of age 14 years and above)

In RURAL areas Pudducherry with 58.0% households having internet facility was the highest, Followed by rural Lakshadweep with 56.1% households having internet facility as second highest. Third highest number of households having internet facility was in Kerala with 51.3%, followed by Goa with 48.6% and Delhi with 42.9% households.

If all these figures indicates something then see this also given bellow:

Daman Diu had 58.0% males dropout from schools, Lakshadweep had 50.9%, Dadra Nagar Haveli had 46.9%, A & N Islands had 45.8% males dropped out of schooling system. Pudducherry (44.6%), Odisha (42.0%), Karnataka(42.3%) and Goa(43.5%).

However, there is few estimates from survey that tells the number of never attended schools? Daman Diu had 18.0%, Dadra Nagar Haveli had 11.8%, Uttar Pradesh had 11.4 and Bihar had 14.3% males who never attended schooling system.

A33A32

In A & N Islands (as per 2011 census data)

  • 72.1% households possess mobile phones (81.2% in urban)
  • 68.5% households possessed Television (86.3% urban)
  • 83.6% households had telephone (94.4% urban)
  • 3.5% households had computers with internet (7% urban)

 

https://www.komando.com/tips/403149/secret-ways-your-kids-could-be-hiding-nudes-on-their-phones/all

The 2011 Pew Internet survey reported that 95% of U.S. young adults between ages 12 through 17 are online, of whom, 80% have profiles on social media sites, as compared to only 64% of the online population aged 30 and older. https://www.huffingtonpost.com/suren-ramasubbu/teenagers-and-the-internet_b_7012050.html

while checking net i found this. I didnt know about it earlier. 

But problem now may be of dangerous proportion? we don’t have data to show as to how many kids age wise are having access to internet in India? in some sites it requires to submit that user is of 18 years or above. But when a kid of 14 years clicking it how do the site knows exact age?. few sites i have seen while creating a profile or signing up it requires some ID proof to be put up for verification?? there also we can have fake IDs?

but i don’t know whether parents can keep eye on their kids use of internet outside home? many students now days attend coaching classes and tuition etc. How we can monitor their behaviour ?? a big challenge? to keep up our family values, morality etc?

we hear on TV the crime cases under POSCO are on rise at a high pace?

 

Work force: work participation rate (WPR): population census, Cultivators

Most of people are now aware of the word “Work Force” Thanx to our Prime Minister. At various places he highlighted about young large work force of India. Often this tag line is referred to while talking about #MakeInIndia.

What is Work force? Often it can be referred to as Labour Force.

What is Labour force? : Persons who are either ‘working’ (employed) or ‘seeking’ or available for work (unemployed) or both during a major part of the reference period, constitute labour force.

The Labour Force Participation Rate(LFPR)- is a measure of the proportion of a country’s working-age population that engages actively in the labour market, either by working or looking for work. It provides an indication of the relative size of the supply of labour force available to engage in the production of goods and services.

Census definition of worker is slightly different from NSSO. The person who is engaged in economically productive activity during the reference period of one year preceding the date of enumeration was considered as worker. A person who has participated in the economically productive activity for 183 days or six months or more during the reference period was termed as a Main worker and the person who participated for less than 183 days or six months during the reference period was termed as Marginal Worker.

For the first time in Census 2011, the marginal workers, i.e. workers who worked for less than six months in the reference year, have been sub-divided in two categories, namely, those working for less than 3 months and those who worked for 3 months or more but less than six months.

Worker Population Ratio: The WPR signifies the proportion of workers/employed persons in the total population for the specific age group. All the labour force related parameters are derived for the persons aged 15 years and above.

Table 3.2: Worker Population Ratio based on UPS and UPSS approach for persons aged 15 years & above All India (in %) taken from report of Labour Bureau, Chandigarh

Approach
Rural Urban Rural + Urban
M F T P M F T P M F T P
UPS 74.1 24.6 50.0 50.4 66.8 14.3 36.9 41.4 72.1 21.7 45.9 47.8
UPSS 75.7 30.2 51.9 53.9 67.1 14.8 36.9 41.8 73.3 25.8 47.2 50.5
(report on fifth annual employment & unemployment survey 2015-16)

As per census 2011 work participation rate(WPR) of India is 39.8%. [Rural-41.8 and Urban-35.3%] it has slightly increased from that of 2001. There is another WPR that is known as worker population ratio.

Highest WPR in country was in Himachal Pradesh with 51.9%. Second highest WPR was in Sikkim at    and third highest of Daman & Diu at 49.9%.

Among the rural areas of India highest WPR was of Nagaland at 54%, with 53.3%  there is tie for second highest WPR between Himachal Pradesh and Sikkim.

Similarly looking at Urban India we find highest WPR urban was in Daman & Diu with 53.6%, Dadra Nagar Haveli(urban) with 45.5% was second highest in India. Sikkim(urban) with 41.9% was third highest in India.

Work Participation Rate is higher in Rural areas than urban areas? Does it not sound strange to ears of urbanites? Since it goes against the common perception of urbanite that “work” is more in urban areas thus quite often people tend to migrate to urban centres. If you don’t agree then ask any person of urban areas. Often we will find that very few are really aware of the problems in Rural areas.

Census considers certain categories of workers as per their definitions and based on that data is collected through door to door survey and based on response.

Gender wise data show that work participation of Males is 53.3% [Rural- 53% and Urban – 53.8%] this indicates that within the male category there is not much difference between the working of males among rural and urban areas. It is approx at 53%.

Work Participation Rate of Female is 25.5% at all India level. [Rural – 30% and Urban- 15.4%]. Here lies the difference. First is the huge difference between genders, ie. WPR of Male is 53.3 and that of female is 25%. Another difference was found within the gender of Female i.e. gap in rural and urban females. That is rural female WPR is 30 but urban female WPR is 15.4%. Urban has less WPR than Rural areas? Is it not opposite than common perception of urban persons.

Either unemployment among urban female population is more than rural or the perception that female do not work is a hindrance in urban areas? Or lack of opportunity of employment in urban areas?

This data indicates that women in rural areas work more in comparison to urban female.

Among the male worker category WPR males was highest in Daman & Diu with 71.5%. Second highest WPR male in country was in Dadar Nagar Haveli at 61.6%. Third highest was in Sikkim with 60.2%. Fourth highest WPR male was in A & N Islands at 59.6%

Among rural India Chandigarh stood highest with 62.2% WPR male. Second highest WPR male was in Sikkim with 61%. Third highest was in Tamil Nadu at 60%. Next comes Karnataka with 59.8% as fourth highest WPR male and A & N Islands with 59.1% was fifth highest.

Among the Urban areas WPR males was highest in Daman Diu with 75.1%. Second highest was Dadra Nagar Haveli with 66.5% WPR male. Third highest was A & N Islands with 60.4% followed by Tamil Nadu with 58.5% at fourth highest WPR male urban. 5th highest was in Karnataka at 57.8% WPR male urban.

Female work participation Rate:

WPR female at all India level was 25.5% [rural – 30% and Urban-15.4%]

Highest WPR female was in Himachal Pradesh at 44.8% followed by Nagaland as second highest with 44.7%. Chatissgarh was at third highest WPR female with 39.7% WPR female. Sikkim had fourth highest WPR female as 39.6%.

Among rural India Nagaland had highest WPR female as 52.3%. Second highest WPR female was in Himachal Pradesh at 47.4%. Chatissgarh was at third highest WPR female at 46.3% and with 44.6 there was tie between Andhra Pradesh and Sikkim at fourth highest place.

Among the Urban areas highest WPR female was in Manipur at 33.2%, second highest was Mizoram with 31.1%. Third highest was Nagaland with 25.8% followed by Sikkim with 24.8% as fourth highest.

5th highest was Meghalaya with 23.6% WPR female urban, followed next by Tamil Nadu with 21.8% at Sixth highest.

Cultivators is a category of workers on which data is collected in population census of India. In 2011 highest percentage of cultivators to total workers was in Himachal Pradesh at 57.9%. Second Highest percent was in Nagaland at 55.2% followed by Arunachal Pradesh with 51.5%. Fourth highest % of cultivators was in Mizoram with 47.2, Rajasthan with 45.6% at 5th highest, Meghalaya with 41.7% as the 6th highest. Uttarakhand with 40.8 was 7th highest in country followed by Manipur at 8th place with 39.5% cultivators to total workers.

Now this is strange that when we talk about Agriculture immediately we imagine UP, AP, Punjab, Haryana etc as the states where we agriculture is prevalent. Therefore could we say that percentage of cultivators also should be greater or large. Now looking at census data we find that out of total worker population as described in above para proportion of cultivators is more among the North Eastern States of India. Most of them had highest proportion of cultivators.

Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Kerala, West Bengal and Bihar which we perceive as Agriculturist states had less than 20% of cultivator proportion of total workers.

Now the data of Rural areas tells what?

cultivators 2011
Cultivators & percentage to total workers, Primary census Abstract, Census of India 2011

 

Among Rural areas with 76.2% Mizoram had highest cultivator percentage to total workers. With 68% Nagaland had second highest cultivator%. Arunachal Pradesh had 63.4% that was third highest. With 62.3% Himachal Pradesh was fourth highest.

Among the rural areas we find that not many states had even 50% percentage of cultivators to total worker population. Rajasthan-54.8%, UttaraKhand-54%, Manipur and Meghalaya had 50% cultivator proportion to total workers. Rest states had less than 40%.  This data shows the percentage of cultivators to total workers.

In all most all the states we find that percentage of cultivators among workers has diminished. In few states it is alarmingly high.

In J&K percentage of cultivator to total workers is 28.8% in 2011 where as it was 42.4% in 2001 census.

cultivators

last column shows the decline in the cultivators since 2001 census. The common perception of states those producing rice or any food grains was that they may be having large number of cultivators. But looking at above table we can see how it is different. Present India (census 2011) is not of rural India, even though approximately 60% population is in rural areas. Urbanization is increasing at high pace. Here only concern is of cultivation or agriculture?

Percentage of Male cultivators to total workers is 24.9. [Rural- 35.2 & Urban-2.7]. Percentage of Female cultivators to total workers is 24 [Rural-28.8 & Urban-3.1]. Both these percentage have decreased from that of 2001. Male cultivators percentage to total workers in 2001 was 31 [Rural-42 & Urban-2.5] and female cultivators percentage was 32.9 [Rural-37.1 & urban-4.1].

cultivators male

cultivators females

Following map shows the difference in percentage of cultivators during last three census. During last three decades there is horrible difference, and it has to a stage requiring urgent and immediate attention. It requires a vision plan to tackle it and save Agriculture and Agricultural Land. Provided we as society have to cope with scarcity of food (food shortage) Can I add that the price rise of vegetables and other edible commodities is also a cause of concern.

map cultivators

The belt which we have known as “Plain” Ganga Jamuna plain, doab दोआब, and has been most fertile land, has been providing food (foodgrains) since centuries is now at danger. This green land is now turning into yellow, I mean in the map.

Here I am talking about percentage of cultivators that has been decreasing in consecutive censuses. Who else other than cultivator will provide food to increasing population?

In Uttar Pradesh cultivator percentage to total workers has decreased to 35.6 in 2011 from 48.7 of 2001. In rural UP Male cultivators was 39.2% in 2011 but it was 52.2% in 2001 and Female cultivators in rural UP was 25.5% in 2011 that was 38.9% in 2001.

I assume when we say the food producers then we imagine cultivators and not Agricultural Labourers. Thus Who is cultivator as per census concept is?

map AL
Agricultural Labourers in India, as per census 2011

AL

I don’t think that only Agriculture Labourers will provide food in  future problem of food scarcity or diminishing Agricultural land. But if Agricultural labourers are decreasing then it can be inferred that either mechanization of Agriculture has increased or Agriculture work has reduced ( I read it as diminishing agriculture).

In India as per 2011 census percentage of Agriculrural Labourers to toal workers was 30 [rural- 39.3 & urban- 5.5] while that of 2001 was 26.5% [rural- 33 & urban- 4.7].

Strange!!! Agriculture Labourers has increased over the decade. That means still mechanism has not impacted labour element in agriculture.

In 2011 Male AL were 24.9% [rural- 34.4 & urban- 4.6] whereas in 2001 male Al were 20.8 [rural-27.5 & urban- 3.4]

Female AL percentage was 41.1 in 2011 [rural -48.5 & urban -9.0] and in 2001 it was 38.9% [rural- 43.0 & urban – 10.7]

Highest percentage of AL in country was in Bihar at 52.8% [rural – 56.9 & urban 15.3] in 2001 it was 48% [rural- 51 & urban 12.2].

Second highest Agricultural Labourers(AL) were AndhraPradesh at 43% [rural- 55 & urban- 8.3] in 2001 it was 39.6% [rural- 47.6 & urban 6.7]

Third highest percentage of AL was in Chattisgarh at 41.8% [rural- 48.6 & urban -9.3] whereas in 2001 it was 31.9% [rural-36.1 & urban-5.3].

Female highest AL were in Bihar with 60.8% [rural 63.4 & urban – 20.1] in 2001 it was 62.6 [rural-64 & urban-26.4]. Second highest female agricultural labourers were in Andhra Pradesh with 58% [rural- 67.3 & urban-14.6]

Following is another statistics about our Agriculture taken from a report titled “State of Indian Agriculture 2015-16″.  I have taken data of few years so as to compare.

year              (Thousands hectares) 1970-71 1990-91 2000-01 2013-14
Permanent pastures & grazing land 13261 11406 10662 10258
Culturable waste land 17500 15000 13631 12388
Not available for cultivation 44606 40728 41235 43860
Other uncultivated land excluding fallow land 35128 30219 27737 25832
Net area sown 140863 142870 141336 141428
Cultivated land 151461 156710 156113 155581
Agricultural /cultivable land 182056 185187 183455 181850
Crop intensity 117.7 130 131.1 142.0
Net irrigated 31103 48024 55205 68100
Area under crops        
Tur (Arahar dal) 2347 3610 3665 3527
Total pulses 22534 24883 21325 23779
Total food grains 124910 127948 122680 125136
Sugarcane 2589 3908 4662 5526
Mustard & rape seed 1415 5143 4174 6055
Total oil seed 14719 25152 24625 30111

As this data suggests there is something called as permanent pastures or grazing lands under the categories of Land Use Statistics. from above table it shows that our pasture land that were used as grazing lands have decreased over the decades. people from Animal Husbandry or Agriculture departments know there has been a scheme under which govt supports such grazing lands either providing fodder seeds or fencing materials or subsidy etc through Panchayats or via departmental channels.

Land under irrigation has increased over the years along with Crop intensity. Area under crops has increased for pulses but low than that of 1990. land under Arahar dal has decreased. does it means framers don’t want to grow Arahar dal? Cant say unless we compare with the actual production data.  Similarly land area under crop sugarcane and mustard including grape seeds has also increased

 

 

Cultivator: For the purpose of the census a person is classified as cultivator if he or she is engaged in cultivation on land owned or held from government or held from private persons or institutions for payment in money, kind or share. Cultivation includes effective supervision or direction in cultivation.