Population census in India has been continuous process since century(1881?) and most precious data collection exercise in the world.
Though started in British India in present form, but data collection is an exercise without which no administration can function. Even in mughal period too various kinds of survey were done. My grand mother often used to tell a word मरदन शुमारी. In hindostani language it was word for census.
In 2011-12 NPR was conducted and icards were issued to me. In those times there were threats of terrorist attacks, infiltration. Thus a census of usual residents was planned in country, but border states were thought to be covered first. So my area was a border area thus I got NPR card. This was the exercise to know about any infiltration?
Data on migration is a continuous subject of interest in population census for data researchers and policy makers planners etc.
In this data series we can get to know how many people reside in other district than their place of birth. How many reside in state other than their birth state and even country of birth. Data also gives insight into time/period of residence at present place. How long they residing at present place shortest months or less than 1 years other than 5 years, less than 5 or more than 5?
Mother tongue, amenities in houses such as bathroom, kitchen, laterine, drain, fuel for cooking-whether using lpg, wood or kerosene oil or electricity, availability of drinking water within premises or distance, assets in households such as TV mobile landline phone, internet, vehicle-2 or 4 wheeler etc, household members, head of household(if woman or male we get to know), even social group i.e. ST or SC etc details,
Interesting information I get is how many married couple live in households, whether they have an exclusive room in house, or number of rooms in a house?
Specific data was collected on place of birth, name of district state or country was to be mentioned. Then was place of last residence, if person comes from other stay or place then name of that place was collected. Reason of migration and duration of stay in present place after migration was also collected.
Number of children surviving, Number of children ever born and number of children born during last year was also collected. Together this data on age at the time of marriage was also collected.
There was a survey/census on Socio Economic Caste Census too i.e. SECC. A door to Door survey was conducted to know social Economic Condition of every household. Many aspects of economic conditions together with Caste or community was also collected.
Economic Survey is conducted every five years or so, different than population census
Agriculture Census is a continuing programme of census/survey, it also includes Input Survey-that collects many important data on Land Use, cultivable land, cropping pattern, inputs used in Agriculture or Farm implements, few of data on financial aspects of farming.
Land reforms are in place, earlier we heard of Bhumilekha or an initiative where all land records are digitized. Anyone can check, download their land records.
There are various systems of registrations, not but for many things, establishing a commercial establishment, either a factory or a small industries now comes under MSME?
Registrar of factories, Labour commissioners
Registrar of companies, societies?
Registrar of cooperative societies
for MSME- District Industries centres(DIC)
Employment Exchange-few are university employment bureau
now there is new one FSSAI, all food vendors are supposed to register
In population census a preliminary exercise is conducted to collect data on homes, often called as house-listing. Enumerators are given job to collect data on population, but if they don’t have house-listing of their designated area how can they collect data? i mean without any prior information no one can go to field and collect data, it is like going to a jungle/forest & collect data of whoever is sighted?
Thus a detailed ward-wise, village-wise mapping is done before start of population counting. These maps are updated while collecting data by enumerators, indicating any new construction of houses, institutional buildings, parks, water bodies, forest area etc. All this is done so that when other set of people(enumerators) go to that area so they have ready-made guide of that area. It is quite possible that by the time enumerator reaches that area, few new buildings might have been constructed, then without any problem enumerators add that new building also and collect data.
Due to corona virus (covid19) pandemic lockdown is announced. Few people started pointing out problems of non availability of food to migrants labourer, poor families. no job to daily wage earners.
Thus i thought, if initiative of registration of capturing everything in data form must have been popular in our country, then lot of problems could have been solved. digitally.
Few Govts have announced financial benefits via DBT to poor or needy people. But if they don’t have any identity(bank accounts?), it’s difficult for any system to locate-identify such beneficiaries. Had there been any digital route/data/mapping in place, it would have been easy and effortless to transfer all benefits. Few years back JanDhan yojana was started with zero balance saving bank accounts. Crores of people got benefit. For last 70 years poor people could not in dream to see or enter gates of BANKS, whereas lakhs of wealthy people got benefit-loans etc from Many BANKS?
Few years back everyone used to blame migrant labourer for crimes taken place in Mumbai, Chennai, Delhi etc? Had there been any system of registration of labourers, their movements & other details could have been captured in a centralised Database. Labour Department and Registrar of factories & commercial establishment Act etc can make registration of labourers or workers mandatory. Each State can do it. Later it can be part of a centralized database. There is scheme of insurance of workers. But i was confused as there was also an option of registration of workers union? and with that registration of workers who are its members?
I mean if all labourers/workers are registered anywhere in India they could have got benefits declared by various govts, most importantly through DBT without any manual interface, thus it could reduce corruption and increase transparency. Unorganised sector, as name suggests is without any organised way to study, locate or report about it. Various schemes are launched for benefits of workers, but if workers are not registered then no benefit can reach the identified targets. Since DBT has ensured 0 corruption, still if there is no database then no cash transfer can take place.
Family Ration Cards have gone under massive makeover. Instead of paper ration cards now Smart Ration cards based on Aadhaar authentication have been Incorporated. Though it had many problems too. Many cases were reported in news channels where, if head of family is not present then it became difficult for family to take ration from FPS shops. Now in many cases any of family member can lift ration from shop after authenticating their finger prints. Digital India has grown in leaps and bounds together with UIDAI. As time passes utilization and potential-opportunity of use of Aadhaar is increasing many folds. For that digitization has to be upto the mark to handle huge data or Database.
In few states database was used to help migrant labourers. Problem arises when only men migrate to other states leaving behind families. Thus someone from family has to go to ration shop and authenticate. Man as a migrant has to fend for himself on daily basis if he is a daily wager. As I got my smart ration card that looks like a debit card and works on password.
During lockdown many labourers were shown on TV returning from punjab. Few said they worked in Agriculture fields now returning to their villages to mend their agriculture fields. That means harvesting seasons are different in punjab and Bihar? funny idea?
All ration cards if available online then there should be no problem to develop a centralised database, much like core banking. In Banks too, i heard similar concept was introduced as one can operate bank accounts from anywhere across India, as all banks have their core database accessible.
Govt announced that some cash will be transferred to bank accounts of migrant labourers, workers, women holding JanDhan accounts? other migrant labourers, Few TV Channels shown Women standing in queues in front of Banks to withdraw money supposedly transferred to their bank accounts by Govt. TV channels were trying to show violation of social distancing.
Lockdown has brought to fore opportunity the digital India can offer. All activities thought of to be done online. Medicine, Tele-Medicine, grocery, Food, other essential items were thought to be made available at the door step of households.
Few people from Art field or performing Arts cried that their livelihood issues are ignored? Online social media came to their rescue. Few said some financial benefits shall be provided to Folk artists who depend on various performing Arts, Handicrafts, paintings, etc list is long. But do we have list or database of all our artists, be in any field?
Urban centres can do it, but what about artists in rural areas. Many are part time artists and part time labourers or cultivators or agriculture labourers? If we dont have their list or any kind of authenticated identity somewhere in online format, that’s called database containing all details, no financial benefit can be transferred. Thus Lockdown has opened immense sea of opportunity to make, develop, create and innovate databases or various kinds, possibilities are endless. District Administration, local self Governments, Local bodies have to take this opportunity and try to develop databases on their areas, containing various information about beneficiaries. If they have any schemes that are targeted to provide benefit to beneficiaries?
Census or survey are tools to provide immense information, that can benefit planners, policy makers, decision makers, even social media activists. yes that’s new kind of workers and growing each day. watch any debate on TV channels. They are full of experts, as if they are the great noble laureates. Few anchors are projecting as if they know everything on earth? I found few of them didn’t know anything before 2014, or sometimes i felt they came new to India? since they didnt see problems in India before 2014? Few journalists do monologue on their TV whole day?
Media too need a database, time is that everyone here and there becoming journalist and expert analyst.
on TV heard that state govt are asking migrant workers to register their names in districts they are in, so that trains or bus can be arranged to bring back. This opportunity can be utilized to register all such data anywhere in database. If workers return to their home town, people from few departments of Registering authorities must be present at deporting points and collect data on these workers in concerning registers so as to update information in database. Later any survey can be done to authenticate data/information.